Software testing is quite vital for the success of any software product in the competitive marketplace. The manual test thus plays a great role in software development and comes in handy when there is no possibility of using automated testing software. Thus there is still a lot of demand for the people who have got the skills for manual testing.
But before you take the step to apply for a job, you must have a proper understanding of the manual testing interview questions. It will prepare you and guarantee you are able to get the job easily.
Manual testing interview questions
- The difference between quality control and quality assurance
Quality control, on one side, is a product-oriented approach that is used for running a program for determining if it has any defects and ensures that the software meets all the requirements.
On the other side, quality assurance is a process-oriented approach that majorly focuses on ensuring other techniques, methods, and processes used for creating quality deliverables are used properly.
- Software testing-what is it?
It is a process that is used to identify completeness, correctness, and the quality of the developed software. It includes different activities conducted to find any errors in the software so that it can be connected before the product is released.
- Importance of software testing
It is quite a mandatory process that guarantees that a software product is good enough and safe to be released in a market.
Besides, it helps point out any defects or errors which can be corrected right at the beginning to avoid any complications later and ensure that the application doesn’t result in any failure.
- Different types of manual testing
Manual testing can be divided into different types, including
- White-box testing
- Integration testing
- Black box testing
- System testing
- Acceptance testing
- Unit testing
- Mention the different levels of manual testing
In the case of manual testing, there are four different levels that begin with unit testing. It then moves ahead to integration testing, system testing, and user acceptance testing.
- Test bed-what is it in manual testing?
It is an environment created for testing an application like software or hardware required for running the program to be tested.
- What is the process of manual testing?
The manual testing process involves a lot of steps which include.
- Planning and control
- Analysis and designing
- Implementation and execution
- Valuation of the existing criteria and preparing reports
- Test closer activities
- API testing-what does it mean?
It is a type of software testing wherein the application programming interface is tested for determining if they meet the expectations for liability function ability, performance, and security.
- Benefits of manual testing
Manual testing is known to provide a lot of benefits, but the biggest one will be cost-effectiveness, as it can be a lot more affordable when compared to automatic testing. Besides, it is quite easy to learn for new people who have just entered the industry.
- Are there any drawbacks of manual testing?
The biggest drawback that can be seen in the case of manual testing is human error which can be quite risky.
- When to stop testing?
No doubt, testing can be quite helpful to identify the problem, but in some instances, you need to stop the process, which can be after the test case execution when the automated code coverage reaches a specific value with no critical fault and also after the deadlines are met with no high priority issues.
- What is SDLC?
Software development life cycle refers to all the activities which have been used during the development process, which means right from requirement gathering, deployment, and maintenance.
- What is a bug?
It is a fault that is identified in a software product at the time of testing, which makes it function in an unplanned manner.
- What are the common defect management tools?
Most popularly used defect management tools include Jira, Mantis, Bugzilla, Quality Center, Redmine, etc.
- What do you mean by Black box testing?
It is a software testing approach that requires the tester to check the software’s functionality as per the requirements of the business.
- What is test coverage?
It is a qualitative metric that simply represents the amount of testing which is completed for the product. It is relevant for non-functional and functional testing activities.
- Is it possible to do system testing at any stage?
No, it is vital that the system testing only be done if all the modules are right in one place and are working correctly. But it must be done before UAT.
- Difference between beta and Alpha testing
The businesses choose to conduct beta testing on their website. On the other hand, the Alpha testing is done at the side of the developer before the release.
- How do a defect and a bug differ?
A bug is a software defect found during the testing time. While the defect is a variance that happens between the actual results and expected results. It is detected by the developer after the product is launched.
- The benefit of test independence
Independence is quite vital and useful as it prevents the authorizer from defining effective tests.
- How many test cases can be run in a day?
It is possible to run around 30 to 55 test cases per day.
- Is it a 100% bug-free product released in the market?
In most cases, there can be a certain problem with the application when the testing team is not good, or the product is old.
- Name the type of defects
There are basically three different defects, namely missing, wrong and extra.
- What is risk-based testing?
It is a testing process that is based on the risk analysis approach. It is categorized as a priority based on the risk.
- Which testing is important for web testing?
Formal testing and security testing are the options that are quite vital to perform.
- How to perform automation testing on a pen?
For the process, one needs to put some sheets of paper on the roll and then connect the motor and the switch to the pen. The pen will start writing. Once it has stopped, you will observe the number of the lines which it has written on each page along with the length of each track, and by multiplying all of this, one can know how many kilometers the pen can write.
- What is the difference between test case and use case?
The test case is a document that is used for describing the action input and the expected response, which helps control the application based on the customer requirements. On the other side use case is a detailed description of the customer requirements.
- When is there a need to perform testing?
One has to perform testing whenever there is a need to check if all the requirements are executed correctly or not. Also, it helps ensure that the company is delivering the right quality products.
- What are the reasons behind the bug in the application?
Different reason includes
- Software complexity
- Time pressure
- Programming errors
- Modification in requirement
- How can you manually track the bug?
The step involves
- Identifying the bug
- Ensuring it is not duplicate
- Preparing report
- Storing it in the bug repository
- Sending the details to the development team
- Managing the bug life cycle
- How to test a login feature of a web application?
The steps involve
- Signing in with a valid login
- Logout and go back to the login page again to see if you are truly logged out
- Log in and go back to the same page to see if you can see the login screen again
- Sign in using one browser and then open another one to see if you need to sign in again
- Finally, log in to change the password and then log out. Finally, check if you are able to log in using the old password
- What is the use of exit criteria?
It is used for defining the completion of the test level.
- Explain the defect life cycle?
It is the process wherein the defect goes through different phases during the whole lifetime. It helps identify the issue and take proper measures to fix it on time.
- What is a test harness?
It is software and test information gathering which is arranged for testing a program unit by running it under different conditions like load, stress, data-driven, etc.
- What is defect cascading?
It is a process used for triggering the other defects in an application.
- What do you know about experience-based testing techniques?
The technique is all about investigation, discovery, and learning. Herein the tester is responsible for analyzing the product and using his skills to develop better strategies for the testing process.
- How to test a product if the requirements are yet to freeze?
When there is no necessity for the application’s functionality, it must be removed immediately, or else it is better to create a test plan based on the assumptions about the product.
- How to understand if the code has met specifications?
A good code will always be bug-free, maintainable, and readable. Most organizations generally have a standard that the developers need to adhere to. Besides, there are different tools that can guarantee that the requirements are full.
- What is configuration management?
Each of the organizations has got a master plan that has determined how they can operate and accomplish the task. Configuration management is the set of policies, process, and tools that helps control, organize and coordinate.
- Why do you need to choose automated testing?
There is a requirement for automation testing when
- There is the requirement for periodic execution
- Reports are required for every execution
- Presence of multiple codes that need to be repeatedly tested
- Time restriction for completing the testing phase
- What practices to follow when writing test cases?
- Giving more priority to the test cases based on the project timeline and the risk factors
- List down test cases and separate them based on functionality and business scenario
- The test must be written in an easy to understanding and modifying manner
- Continuously make use of a test management tool for managing the release cycle
- Is it possible to replace manual testing with automation testing?
No, there is no replacement for manual testing. Irrespective of the technology or advancements that will come, there will still be a requirement for the manual test. Manual testing identifies the problem and explores different angles of the test with more flexibility.
- What skills are required for becoming a software tester?
- Problem-solving skills
- Organizational skills
- Technical skills
- Ability to handle pressure
- Good verbal and written communication skills
- What is the difference between validation and verification?
Verification is meant for evaluating the software at the development phase to know if the product meets the requirements. On the other side, validation is meant for evaluating the software after the development phase to see if it meets the customer requirement.
- What is sanity testing?
It is testing performed at the release level for testing the main functionalities of the application.
- What is white box testing?
It involves the analysis of the internal architecture of the system or its implementation in addition to the source code quality.
- What are the techniques of black-box testing?
- Boundary value analysis
- Equivalence partitioning
- Cause-effect graphing
- What are the drawbacks of manual testing?
- Susceptible to human error
- Not possible to record the manual testing process
- Can we expensive in the long run
- What is SDLC?
Software development life cycle is the activities that are performed during the development phase of the software.
- What is a test scenario?
It is used for end-to-end testing of the application features. It can be quite helpful when there is a time constraint during the testing process.
- What is an error?
Error is a similar case that happens during the software testing due to some missing scenario in the requirement.
- What are some defects and reporting attributes?
- Defect Summary
- Defect Description
- Steps to reproduce
- Expected result
- Actual result
- Defect severity
- What is defect density?
It is the technique used to measure the density of the defect that is identified in the system.
- What is the critical bug?
It is the issue that can greatly impact the functionality of the application. Thus the application is checked to deliver to the audience without any issue.
- What is dynamic testing?
It is testing performed by running or executing the application either using automation or a manual testing process.
- What is boundary value analysis?
It is a software testing technique that is meant for designing test cases wherein the values of the classes of the equivalence class partitioning are taken for inputting into the test cases.
- What is a cause-effect graph?
It is a technique used in black-box testing wherein a graphical representation of the input is used for test designing.
- What is code coverage?
It is used for measuring the amount of code that the test scripts have covered.
- What is a driver?
In the case of bottom-up integration testing, the driver is used for stimulating the top-level working and for testing-related modules present lower in the hierarchy.
- What is the difference between bug release and bug leakage?
Bug leakage is the situation that arises when the end-user finds an issue in the software after its release in the market. On the other side, bag release is a situation when a specific software version is released in the market knowingly for fixing in the later versions.
- What do you know about defect triage?
It is the process in which the defects are mainly prioritized based on different factors like the risk, severity, time required for fixing the bug, etc.
- What is fail over-testing?
It is a type of testing which is mainly used for verifying the ability of the application to allocate more resources in case of failure or during the transfer of the processing part to the backup system.
- What is pilot testing?
It is the testing process that is carried out by a limited number of users to evaluate the system and provide fluid back about the complete deployment.
- What is cycnomatic complexity?
In simple terms, it is a measure of the number of independent paths in an application or program.
- Explain the agile methodology
The agile methodology in software development is based entirely on the interactive or incremental approach. Herein the application is broken down into smaller belts on which different cross-functional teams work together to provide rapid delivery.
- What is scrum?
It is the process used for implementing giant meteorology.
- What is content-driven testing?
It is a testing technique that is used for adopting methodologies and test practices at times for customizing them based on the content of the project.
- What is defect cascading?
It is a process that is used to trigger a defect using another defect. It happens when the testing team does not identify a defect, and it gives rise to another defect.
- What is the difference between a mask and latent defects?
A latent defect majorly is an unidentified issue present in the current release. However, it is not visible because the conditions the defect could have found never met the criteria. On the other side, a mask defect is an existing effect that causes failure because another error has hidden it.
- Explain TDD
Test-driven development is the development methodology. Herein the software development is given by test cases that need to be implemented.
- What are the different roles in scrum?
- The product owner is the one who’s responsible for owning the whole development of the project, acting as the interface between the stakeholders and the scrum team
- The scrum master looks at and monitors the scrum rules to be followed in a team
- A scrum team is one that is participating in the scrub meetings and performing the task assigned to them.
- Difference between debugging and testing
Debugging is the activity that is performed by the development team to locate and fix the defect. On the other side, testing is majorly focused on finding the defects in the system.
- What is RTM?
The requirement traceability matrix is a table that relates high-level requirements with test plan detail requirements ensuring 100% coverage.
- What is the difference between build and release?
A build on one side is an executable file that is provided by the developer’s testing team that helps with application testing. On the other side, the release is installable software released to the audience after it is certified by the testing team.
- What is the difference between sanity smoke testing?
The smoke testing is responsible for testing the major personality of the application before carrying out exhaustive testing. On the other side, sanity testing is carried out when the application requires a minor fix.
- What is a stub?
The stubs are used majorly for stimulating the working of the modules by providing certain hard-coated or expected output based on the input values.
- Name types of integration
- Big Bang integration
- Bottom-up integration testing
- Top-down integration testing
- What is a blocker?
It is a bug that requires high priority due to the severity.
- What are the entry criteria?
It is a formula set of the conditions that help specify the agreed-upon features of the application in order to mark the completion of the product or process.
- What is dev-box testing?
Herein the tester performs the testing on the system with the name to verify the media functionality of the application to see if it is ready and stable for testing.
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